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语法结构图2  

2008-07-15 20:41:47|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

五.介词

I. 介词分类:

1

简单介词

about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on

2

合成介词

inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without

3

短语介词

according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to

4

双重介词

from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between

5

分词转化成的介词

considering(就而论), including

6

形容词转化成的介词

like, unlike, near, next, opposite

II. 常用介词区别:

1

表示时间的in, on, at

at表示片刻的时间,in表示一段的时间,on总是与日子有关

2

表示时间的since, from

since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用,from指从时间的某一点开始

3

表示时间的in, after

in指在一段时间之后,after表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时的一段时间中

4

表示地理位置的in, on, to

in表示在某范围内,on指与什么毗邻,to指在某环境范围之外

5

表示“在…上”的on, in

on只表示在某物的表面上,in表示占去某物一部分

6

表示“穿过”的through, across

through表示从内部通过,与in有关,across表示在表面上通过,与on有关

7

表示“关于”的about, on

about指涉及到,on指专门论述

8

between与among的区别

between表示在两者之间,among用于三者或三者以上的中间

9

besides与except的区别

besides指“除了…还有再加上”,except指“除了,减去什么”,不放在句首

10

表示“用”的in, with

with表示具体的工具,in表示材料,方式,方法,度量,单位,语言,声音

11

as与like的区别

as意为“作为,以…地位或身份”,like为“象…一样”,指情形相似

12

in与into区别

in通常表示位置(静态),into表示动向,不表示目的地或位置

 

 

六.动词

I. 动词的时态:

1. 动词的时态一共有16种,以ask为例,将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下:

 

现在时

过去时

将来时

过去将来时

一般

ask / asks

asked

shall/will ask

should/would ask

进行

am/is/are asking

was/were asking

shall/will be asking

should/would be asking

完成

have/has asked

had asked

shall/will have asked

should/would have asked

完成进行

have/has been asking

had been asking

shall/will have been asking

should/would have been asking

2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况,但和现在有联系,强调的是对现在造成的影响或结果,它不能同表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之,利用过去,说明现在。如:

I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过,且了解这本书的内容)

2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态,和现在无关,它可和表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“过”,“了”等词。简言之,仅谈过去,不关现在。如:

I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住)

I lived in Beijing for ten years.(只说明在北京住过十年,与现在无关)

3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别:

两者都可以表示“从过去开始一直持续到现在”,在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时,多用现在完成时,如着重表示动作一直在进行,即动作的延续性时,则多用现在完成进行时。一般不能用于进行时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。

I have read that book.我读过那本书了。

I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。

4. 一般将来时的表达方式:

 

将来时

用法

例句

1

will/shall+动词原形

表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态

My sister will be ten next year.

2

be going to+动词原形

含有“打算,计划,即将”做某事,或表示很有可能要发生某事

It’s going to clear up.

We’re going to have a party tonight.

3

be + doing 进行时表示将来

go, come, start, move, leave, arrive等词可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作

He is moving to the south.

Are they leaving for Europe?

4

be about to + 动词原形

表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作,后面一般不跟时间状语

I was about to leave when the bell rang.

The meeting is about to close.

5

be to + 动词原形

表示按计划进行或征求对方意见

We’re to meet at the school gate at noon.

6

一般现在时表示将来

时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情,可用一般现在时表示将来

The meeting starts at five o’clock.

The plane leaves at ten this evening.

II. 动词的被动语态:

 

常用被动语态

构成

 

常用被动语态

构成

1

一般现在时

am/is/are asked

6

过去进行时

was/were being asked

2

一般过去时

was/were asked

7

现在完成时

have/has been asked

3

一般将来时

shall/will be asked

8

过去完成时

had been asked

4

过去将来时

should/would be asked

9

将来完成时

will/would have been asked

5

现在进行时

am/is/are being asked

10

含有情态动词的

can/must/may be asked

 

 

 

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构be

going to, used to, have to, had better变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 如:

Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates.

Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl.

汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如:

It is believed that…            It is generally considered that…           It is said that…

It is well known that…         It must be pointed out that…              It is supposed that…

It is reported that…            It must be admitted that…                It is hoped that…

下面主动形式常表示被动意义:如:

The window wants/needs/requires repairing.          The book is worth reading twice.

The door won’t shut. / The play won’t act.            The clothes washes well. / The book sells well.

The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold.

下面词或短语没有被动态:

leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart等等

 

 

七.情态动词

I. 情态动词基本用法:

情态动词

用法

否定式

疑问式与简答

can

能力(体力,智力,技能)

允许或许可(口语中常用)

可能性(表猜测,用于否定句或疑问句中)

can not / cannot /can’t do

Can…do…?

Yes,…can.

No,…can’t.

could

couldn’t do

may

可以(问句中表示请求)

可能,或许(表推测)

祝愿(用于倒装句中)

may not do

May…do…? Yes,…may.

No,…mustn’t/can’t.

might

might not do

Might…do…? Yes,…might

No,…might not.

must

必须,应该(表主观要求)

肯定,想必(肯定句中表推测)

must not/mustn’t do

Must…do…? Yes,…must.

No,…needn’t/don’t have to.

have to

只好,不得不(客观的必须,有时态人称变化)

don’t have to do

Do…have to do…?

Yes,…do.  No,…don’t.

ought to

应当(表示义务责任,口语中多用should

ought not to/oughtn’t to do

Ought…to do…?

Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t.

shall

将要,会

用于一三人称征求对方意见

用于二三人称表示许诺、命令、警告、威胁等

shall not/shan’t do

Shall…do…?

Yes,…shall.  No,…shan’t.

should

应当,应该(表义务责任)

本该(含有责备意味)

should not/shouldn’t do

Should…do…?

will

意愿,决心

请求,建议,用在问句中would比较委婉

will not/won’t do

Will…do…?

Yes,…will.  No,…won’t.

would

would not/wouldn’t do

dare

敢(常用于否定句和疑问句中)

dare not/daren’t do

Dare…do…?

Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t.

need

需要

必须(常用于否定句和疑问句中)

need not/needn’t do

Need…do…?

Yes,…must. No,…needn’t.

used to

过去常常(现在已不再)

used not/usedn’t/usen’t to do

didn’t use to do

Used…to do…?

Yes,…used.  No,…use(d)n’t.

Did…use to do…?

Yes,…did.  No,…didn’t.

II. 情态动词must, may, might, could, can表示推测:

以must为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行;must + be doing 推测可能正在进行的事情;must +have done是推测可能已经发生过的事情。

1. must“肯定,一定”语气强,只用于肯定句中。

He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there.

2. may和might“也许”,后者语气弱,更没有把握。可用于肯定句和否定句。

He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task.

3. can和could“可能”,could表示可疑的可能性,不及can’t语气强,用于肯定、否定、疑问句中。

The weather in that city could be cold now.

We could have walked there; it was so near.(推测某事本来可能发生,但实际上没有发生)

Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气很强,常用于疑问句和否定句中)

III. 情态动词注意点:

1. can和be able to: 都可以表示能力。但be able to可以表达“某事终于成功”,而can无法表达此意。Be able to有更多的时态。另外,两者不能重叠使用。

2. used to和would:  used to表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯,而would只表示过去的习惯或喜好,不涉及现在。

3. need和dare作情态动词和实义动词的区别:

两者作情态动词时常用于否定句和疑问句。其形式为:needn’t/daren’t do;Need/dare…do…?

做实义动词时可用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句。其形式为:need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don’t(doesn’t/didn’t) need/dare to do

 

 

八.非谓语动词

I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成:

非谓语形式

构成

特征和作用

时态和语态

否定式

复合结构

不定式

to do

to be doing

to have done

to be done

to have been done

在非谓语前加not

for sb. to do sth.

具有名词,副词和形容词的作用

在句中做主、宾、定、表和状语

分词

现在分词

doing

having done

being done

having been done

 

具有副词和形容词的作用

在句中做定、表、宾补和状语

过去分词

done

 

动名词

doing

having done

being done

having been done

sb’s doing

具有名词的作用

在句中做主、宾、定和表语

II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较:

情况

常用动词

只接不定式做宾语的动词

hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen

只接动名词做宾语的动词或短语

mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider

can’t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to

两者都可以

意义基本相同

begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一般或习惯行为)

need, want, require(接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式)

意义相反

stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事

stop doing 停止正在做的事

意义不同

remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未发生)

remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经发生)

go on to do(接着做另外一件事)

go on doing(接着做同一件事)

try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力)

try doing(试试去做,看有何结果)

mean to do(打算做,企图做)

mean doing (意识是,意味着)

can’t help to do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做)

III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别:

 

常见动词

与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念

例句

不定式

ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage

主谓关系。强调动作将发生或已经完成

I heard him call me several times.

have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make

现在分词

 

notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel

主谓关系。强调动作正在进行,尚未完成

I found her listening to the radio.

过去分词

动宾关系。动作已经完成,多强调状态

We found the village greatly changed.

IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别:

 

区别

举例

不定式

与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生

I have a lot of papers to type.

I have a lot of papers to be typed.

动名词

通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的任何关系

Shall we go to the swimming pool?

现在分词

与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语动作同时发生

the boiling water / the boiled water

the developing country/the developed country

the falling leaves / the fallen leaves

过去分词

与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前,现已经完成

V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别:

 

区别

举例

不定式

多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作,做主语时可以借助于it把不定式移到句子后面。做表语有时可和主语交换位置,而且意义不变,并且还能用what来提问主语或表语。

My dream is to become a teacher.

To obey the law is important.

(dream, business, wish, idea, plan, duty, task做主语时常用)

动名词

与不定式的功能区别不大,然而它更接近于名词,表示的动作比较抽象,或者泛指习惯性的动作,有时也可以用it做形式主语,做表语时可以和主语互换位置。

It is no use saying that again and again.

Teaching is my job.

分词

无名词的性质,不能做主语。但是有形容词的性质,可以做表语,多表明主语的特征性质或者状态等,可被very, quite, rather等副词修饰。

现在分词多含有“令人…”之意,说明主语的性质特征,多表示主动,主语多为物。过去分词一般表示被动或主语所处的状态,含有“感到…”之意,主语多是人。

The situation is encouraging.

The book is well written.

(常见分词有astonishing, moving, tiring, disappointing, puzzling, shocking, boring, amusing及其-ed形式)

 

 

九.定语从句

I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。

关系词

先行词

从句成分

例句

备注

关系代词

who

主语

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother?

whom, which和that在从句中做宾语时,常可以省略,但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略,也不可以用that

whom

宾语

Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working

The boy (whom) she loved died in the war..

whose

人,物

定语

I like those books whose topics are about history.

The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

that

人,物

主语,宾语

A plane is a machine that can fly.

She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.

which

主语,宾语

The book (which) I gave you was worth $10.

The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

as

人,物

主语,宾语

He is such a person as is respected by all of us.

This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

as做宾语一般不省略

关系副词

when

时间

时间状语

I will never forget the day when we met there.

可用on which

where

地点

地点状语

This is the house where I was born.

可用in which

why

原因

原因状语

I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

可用for which

II. that与which, who, whom的用法区别:

情况

用法说明

例句

只用that的情况

1. 先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。

2. 先行词被all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few等修饰时

3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时

4. 先行词既指人又指物时

5. 先行词被the only, the very修饰时

6. 句中已经有who或which时,为了避免重复时

1.He told me everything that he knows.

2.All the books that you offered has been given out.

3.This is the best film that I have ever read.

4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered.

5.He is the only man that I want to see.

6.Who is the man that is making a speech?

只用which, who, whom的情况

1. 在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who/whom指人

2. 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物,whom指人。

3. 先行词本身是that时,关系词用which, 先行词为those, one, he时多用who。

He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.

I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.

Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

III. as与which的区别:

定语从句

区别

例句

限制性定语从句中

名词前有such和the same修饰时,关系代词用as,不能用which

He is not such a fool as he looks.

Don’t read such books as you can’t understand.

非限制性定语从句中

as和which都可以指代前面整个主句。如果有“正如,象”的含义,并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那么用as;而which引导的从句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的意思。

They won the game, as we had expected.

They won the game, which we hadn’t expected.

As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.

IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:

类别

语法意义及特征

例句

限制性定语从句

对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句意思就不完整明确,这种从句与主句的关系十分密切,写时不用逗号分开。

The accident happened at the time when I left.

非限制性定语从句 

对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十分密切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当于一个插入语,不能用that引导,关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。

His mother, whom he loved deeply, died ten years ago.

 

十.名词性从句

种类

作用

常用关联词

例句

主语从句

在复合句中做主语,相当于名词,一般置谓语之前,也可用it作形式主语,主语从句放主句之后

that, whether, if, as if, as though, who, whose, which, how, when, where, why, what, whatever, whoever, wherever

Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter much.

Whoever comes here will be welcome.

表语从句

在复合句中做表语,相当于名词,位于系动词之后

It looks as if it is going to snow.

宾语从句

在复合句中做宾语,相当于名词

He asked me which team could win the game.

同位语从句

放在名词之后(news, problem, idea, suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact等) 表明其具体内容

You have no idea how worried we are.

The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.

 

十一。状语从句

种类

连接词

注意点

时间状语

when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, till, by the time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly

主句表示将来意义时,从句须用一般现在时;while引导的从句中动词一般是延续性的;until用在肯定句中主句动词是延续性的,而否定句中主句动词为短暂性的。

地点状语

where, wherever

 

原因状语

because, as, since, now that

because语气最强,since较弱,表示大家都明了的原因,as又次之。

条件状语

if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that

从句中动词时态不可用将来时,常用一般时代替

目的状语

so that, in order that, for fear that

so that和in order that后常接may, should, could, would等情态动词

结果状语

so…that, such…that

 

比较状语

than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the more

 

方式状语

as if, as though, as

as if 和as though引导的从句一般用虚拟语气。

让步状语

though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter which, whichever, no matter how, however, no matter when, whenever

as在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式;although和though用正常语序,可和yet连用,但不可和but连用

 

十二。倒装句

种类

倒装条件

例句

完全倒装

here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away等副词开头的句子表示强调

Out rushed the children.

表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首

Under the tree stood two tables and four chairs.

强调表语,置于句首,或为保持句子平衡

Present at the meeting were 1,000 students.

部分倒装

never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, not等表示否定意义的副词放于句首

Hardly did I know what had happened.

only和修饰的状语放于句首

Only then did he realized the importance of English.

not only…but also连接并列的句子,前倒后不倒

Not only does he know French, but also he is expert at it.

neither…nor…连接并列的句子,前后都倒装

Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it.

so…that, such…that中的so或such及修饰的成分放于句首时前倒后不倒

So busy is he that he can not go on a holiday.

as引导的让步状语

Child as he is, he has learned a lot.

so, neither或nor表示前句内容也适用于另外的人或事。

He can play the piano. So can i.

用于表示祝愿的祈使句中

May you be in good health!

省略if的虚拟条件

Were I you, I would not do it in this way.

十三。虚拟语气

类别

用法

例句

If引导的条件从句

与现在事实相反

从句动词:过去式(be用were)

主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形

If he were here, he would help us.

与过去事实相反

从句动词:had+过去分词

主句动词:should/would/could/might+have+过去分词

If I had been free, I would have visited you.

与将来事实相反

从句动词:过去式 / should+动词原形 / were+不定式

主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形

If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping.

其它状语从句

as if引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式

They are talking as if they had been friends for years.

in order that / so that引导的状语从句中动词用can / could / may / might / would等+动词原形

Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly.

宾语从句

demand, suggest, order, insist后接的从句中动词为should+动词原形

He suggested that we not change our mind.

wish后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和should/would+动词原形表示与现在,过去和将来情况相反

I wish I could be a pop singer.

 

主语从句

在It is necessary / important / strange that…, It is suggested / demanded / ordered / requested that… 等从句中,谓语动词用should+动词原形

It is strange that such a person should be our friends.

其它句型中

It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或should+动词原形

It’s high time that we left.

would rather所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式

I would rather you stayed at home now.

If only句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表示强烈的愿望

If only our dream had come true!

 

 

十四。重要句型

1.       It was not until midnight that he finished his task.

2.       Not until he came back from abroad was I able to see him again.

3.       The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.

4.       He walked around the house, gun in hand.

5.       May you be in good health!

6.       Wish you a pleasant journey back home!

7.       The professor was a humorous man with big nose and deep-set eyes.

8.       What surprised me most was his imagination and patience.

9.       He lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky and his hands under his head.

10.   Sitting under the tree are Mr. Green and his first teacher.

11.   On the wall hang two pictures of famous scientists.

12.   Looking back upon those past years, he couldn’t help feeling very proud.

13.   No sooner(Hardly) had he arrived at the theatre than(when) the play started.

14.   Young as he is, he has learned advanced mathematics.

15.   How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields!

16.   There stands a beautiful vase in the corner of the room.

17.   Ten miles north of the town lies a paper factory.

18.   There goes the bell.

19.   Nowhere has the world ever seen such a bird as here.

20.   It is no use crying for help.

21.   If only I had been your student in the middle school!

22.   It is believed that such a thing will not happen again.

23.   Only when he explained did I realize the reason for this.

24.   “He works particularly hard.”  “So he does, and so do you.”

25.   Not only Alice but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another.

26.   Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person of great achievements.

 

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