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宋的博客

逆水行舟,不进则退

 
 
 

日志

 
 

unit9  

2008-07-28 10:13:29|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 Warming up

What would you do if you could not afford to go to school ?

如果你付不起学费,你会怎么办?

[点拨]

afford 用法小结:

 

通常与can , could , be able to 连用

1afford +n.

e.g.

Are you able to afford a time for a holiday?

你能抽出时间去度假么?

2afford +to do 有时间或金钱做某事;冒之险

e.g.1

We can’t afford to go away this summer.

今年夏天我们无法度假。

e.g.2

She couldn’t afford to displease her boss.

她得罪不起她的上司。

 

You were sick but could not pay for medical treatment?

你生病了,但是付不起医疗费。

[点拨]

pay for 是“给付酬”的意思。

 

pay 常用的搭配有:

 

pay  back 偿付;报答

e.g.1

How can I pay you back for all your kindness?

你的这番好意我怎么报答呢?

e.g.2

pay sb. back blow for blow 以牙还牙

 

pay off 偿清

e.g.

After ten years, he paid off all his debts.

十年之后,他还清了所有的债务。

 

 Listening

The world health organization is devoted to improving people’s health.

世界卫生组织致力于提高人们的健康水平。

[点拨]

be devoted to 表示 “致力于,热爱,忠诚于”的意思

e.g.

She is devoted to her children.

她热爱她的子女。

 

devote oneself / s.th. to 表示“奉献(自己、时间、精力等);致力于的意思

e.g.

to devote oneself to the cure cancer 

致力于癌症的治疗

 

Do you think that the WHO plays an important role in …

你认为世界卫生组织起重要的作用

[点拨]

play an important role in 为“在起重要作用”的意思

 

类似的词组:play the leading role 起带头作用

 

play the role of sb. 扮演某人角色

e.g.

Science plays an important role in developing production.

科学在发展生产中起重要作用.

 

In what ways was the SARS outbreak different from past diseases?

在哪些方面,SARS的爆发与以往的其他疾病不同?

[点拨]

名词 outbreak 是由动词“break out”转变而来,意为“爆发;发挥”

e.g.

an outbreak of anger/fever/hostilities

发怒/发烧/开战

 

 

what steps were taken to control the disease?

采取什么措施来控制这种疾病?

[点拨]take steps 意为“采取措施”

eg. The best step to take is to send him a message.

要采取的最佳措施是马上给他送个信。

How did the WHO assist government in trying to control SARS?

世界卫生组织怎样协助政府试图控制疾病的?

[点拨]assist sb with sth/in doing sth /to do sth “意为帮助某人做某事”。

eg. Tom assist him to fill in the forms.

汤姆帮助他填写表格。

Reading

Wang was diagnosed with tuberculosis.王林被诊断为肺结核。

[点拨]diagnose vt诊断 diagnosis n.

eg. The doctor diagnosed her illness as cancer. 医生诊断他为癌症

Make a diagnosis 诊断  调查分析

Wang was a laid- off  worker。王林是下岗工人,

 [点拨]lay sb off    为“解雇,使下岗”

eg. The boss laid off workmen because of a shortage of materials.

老板由于原材料缺乏而将工人暂时解雇。

His wife has an income of only 300 yuan per month.

他的妻子每月收300元。

[点拨]income  多为可数名词,作,“收入

eg.Smith has an income of 2000 dollars a year 史密斯先生每年收入2000美元。

eg  live within one’s income量入为出

To make matters worse-----  更糟糕的

[点拨] To make matters worse = What’s worse = Worse still 意为“使情况更因难,或更糟糕”

e.g. To make matters worse, he became seriously ill.

Wang Lin was told about a health care project that provides treatment at half the cost or less, depending on the needs of the patient.

王林被告知有一项医疗保健工程,这个工程视病人的需要提供一半或更少一些的治疗费用。

[点拨]cost 作“费用,成本,价格”讲,常与介词at 连用

e.g. 1 The battle was won at a great cost in human lives.

牺牲了许多士兵的胜利才换来了这场战役的胜利。

e.g. 2 at all costs 不惜任何代价,无论如何

e.g. 3 at the cost of =at the loss/expense of 丧失;牺牲

[点拨]depend on/upon 作“依靠,依赖,视而定”

e.g. 1 Children depend on their parents for food and clothing.
小孩依赖他们的父母供给衣食。

e.g. 2 That depends; It (all) depends 视情况而定

e.g. 3 Depend upon it 用于句首或句尾,意为“你可以完全相信;我敢说”

 

Thanks to the project and the kindness of his family and neighbors…

幸亏这项工程以及他的家人和邻居的善良

[点拨]thanks to 意为“由于,因为”

e.g. Thanks to the engineer’s help, the problem in the experiment have been solved.
多亏工程师的帮助,实验中的难题解决了。

 

Wang was able to receive treatment.

王得以接受治疗。

[点拨]be able to 意为“能够”,常用来表达can 不能表示的未来的或完成的概念。

e.g. She said she had not been able to come earlier.
她说她没有能够来的更早一些。

 

If I had had insurance, the sickness wouldn’t have caused such a big problem.

如果我有保险的话,疾病就不会导致如此大的问题。

[点拨]句型 “If sb had done… sb would/could/might/should have done…” 是对过去的虚拟假设。

e.g. If Mathilde’s husband had been wealthy, she would have borrowed the necklace from her friend.

 

The project that saved Wang’s life is one of the many government programs aimed at improving the situation…

挽救王的生命的这项工程是政府旨在改善目前情形而设的许多项目中的一项。

[点拨]aim at 意为“以为目的”

the factory must aim at increasing production.

这个工厂必须以增产为目标。

另外,be aimed at 目标是,目的是

e.g. The visit was aimed at expanding relations between the two countries.

此次拜访目的在于发展两国之间的关系。

The project is designed to encourage health care reform and get rid of poverty.

这项工程试图鼓励医疗保健改革,摆脱贫穷。

[点拨]be designed to do sth. 意为“打算,企图”

e.g. This course of study is designed to help those wishing to teach abroad.

这门课程是为了帮助欲到国教书的人而开的。

 

[点拨]be designed for + sb./sth 设计

e.g. This room was designed for the children.

这间房子预定给孩子们用。

[点拨]get rid of 表示“摆脱,除掉,处理掉”的意思

e.g.1 We shall be glad to get rid of him.

摆脱掉他我们将非常高兴。

e.g.2 He felt that the man must be got rid of at once.

他认为这个人必须立刻除掉。

get 常用的搭配有:

  get along with进展      get back 回来                  get away 逃走              get hold of 抓住
get into
插入               get in 收获                       get off 下来                  get on 上车   
get on well with
相处融洽                            get ready for 准备好      
get together
相聚

 

So far, the project has helped more than 2,000 people receive medical aid.

到目前为止,这项工程已经帮助2000多人得到了医疗上的救助。

[点拨]

so far 到目前为止,常用现在完成时连用

e.g.1

So far, we have been successful.

到现在为止,我们是成功的。

e.g.2

So far he has done very well at school.

到目前为止,他在学校表现很好。

so far 相关的有:e.g.1 so far as that is concerned 事实上 e.g.2 so far, so good 到现在为止一切不错。

[点拨]

more than 用法小结

1. more than + 数字 意为“超过,多于”

e.g.

More than 70 percent of our planet is covered by water.

我们这个星球有百分之七十以上的表面被水覆盖。

2. more than + n/adj/adv/v/v-ing 意为“不只是,非常;岂只”

e.g.1

He is more than a soldier, he is simply a hero.

他何止是个战士,简直是个英雄。

e.g.2

They were more than glad to help.

他们非常乐意帮助。

3. more … than 与其不如

e.g.

The book seems to be more dictionary than a grammar.

这本书像一本词典而不像语法书。

4.① no more than + 数字意为“仅仅,只不过”

e.g.

The area they are working in is no more than thirty meters square.

他们现在干活的场地仅仅有30平方米。

② no more than 用于两事物比较时,否定前,也否定后

e.g.

She is mo more able to read Japanese than I am.

她和我一样不懂日语。

5.① not more than + 数字 至多,不超过

e.g.

The boats are not more than 45 feet long.

这些船的长不超过45英尺。

② not more than 用作两事物比较时,否定前,肯定后,意为“比不上,不及”

e.g.

This book is not more than that one.

这本书不如那本有用。

 

 

 

 


The Chinese government … to provide easy access to hospitals and clinics for low-income families.

为低收入家庭提供进入医院或诊所的通道。

[点拨]

access 意为“通路,进入的道路” (可数);“能接近,能了解,进入或使用”(不可数),常与”to”连用。词组have access to 意为接近,利用。

e.g.1

The only access to the farm was a dirt road.

通向农场的唯一道路就是一条泥路.

e.g.2

Only high officials had access to the emperor.

只有高级官员才能接近皇帝.

 

 

[点拨]

Provide 用法小结:

① Provide sth (for sb) 提供,给,准备

e.g.1

If you pay us a visit, we can provide a meal at any time.

如蒙造访,将随时提供饭菜.

e.g.2

Can your shop provide tents for 20 campers?

你们店能提供20个宿营帐篷吗?

② Provide … with … 给...提供

e.g.1

Was he able to provide you with the information?

他能够提供你信息吗?

e.g.2

We are now provided with everything we need.

我们现在拥有所有需要的东西.

 

22 million urban Chinese were living on money given to them by the government.

22000000 中国农村人经政府发放的救济金为生。

[点拨]

Live on 以...为生 live by doing 以干...为生 live a …life  过...样的生活

e.g.1

We live on wheat and rice

e.g.2

He makes his living by begging.

e.g.3

The old couple live a simple life.

[点拨]

Given to them by the government 为过去分词短语,作money的定语,相当于which was given … 引导的定语从句

This allowance, however, is only enough to cover the most fundamental needs such as food and clothing.

然而,这笔救济金仅够维持他们最基本的需要:衣服和食品。

[点拨]

However 表转折时,其前面或后面要加逗号隔开,如在句子中,其前后都要加逗号.如:The Einsteins, however, couldn’t pay for the education the young Albert needed.

然而,爱因斯坦夫妇付不起小阿尔伯特所需的学费.

 

[点拨]

cover 用法小结:

1.覆盖,遮盖(常有较活译法)

 

Cover the table with a cloth.

用桌布铺上桌子.

 

The walls were covered with paper ornamented with little blue flowers.

墙上糊着缀有蓝色小花的墙纸.

2.走完(一段路);够付(费用);看完(多少页书)

e.g.1

They covered 12 miles yesterday.

昨天,他们走了12英里路.

e.g.2

Will ¥10 cover the cost of a new shirt?

10元钱够买一件新衬衫吗?

e.g.3

How many pages have you covered?

你读了多少页书?

3.有(多少面积),有(多长时间)

e.g.

The city covers ten square miles.

城市占地10平方英里.

 

 

4.谈及,包含

e.g.

The discussion covered a wide range of subjects.

讨论涉及了多方面的话题.

5.报导(有关...消息)

e.g.

The best reporters were sent to cover the war.

派最好的记者去报导这场战争.

 

…disease puts extra pressure on the family…

疾病又给这个家庭带来了额外的负担.

[点拨]

Pressure 此处为“紧张,劳累,负担”的意思

此外,pressure 本意为“压力”,如词组:under pressure (在压力下)blood pressure (血压)air pressure (气压)

e.g.

Is he suffering from pressure of work?

他在为工作劳累苦恼吗?

They cannot afford to consult a docter.

他们付不起医生的咨询费.

[点拨]

consult 用法小结

1consult sb 征求...意见;找(医生)诊治

e.g.

I’ll do nothing without consulting you.

如不征求你的意见,我将什么也不做.

2consult sth (book, dictionary, notes etc.) 翻阅

e.g.

Consult your dictionary when unsure of your spelling.

如拼写不确定,去查查字典.

3consult with 和...商议

e.g.

Consult with your brother before you decide.

做出决定之前与你哥哥商议一下.

… nor can they make sure that their children keep a healthy diet.

 

[点拨]

Nor/neither + 助动词/be 动词/情态动词+主语

表示上文的否定情况也适合这一句意为“主语也不...”

e.g.1

He can’t do it, nor can I, nor can you, nor can anybody.

他不可能做这件事,我也不可能,其他任何人也不可能.

e.g.2

I don’t know and neither do I care.

我不知道我也不在乎.

… as was the case with Wang Lin…王林的情况就是如此。

 

[点拨]

case 作“情况”,“事实”讲

e.g.1

The case with him is quite different.

他的情况就大不相同了.

e.g.2

It’s always the case with him.

他总是这样.

e.g.3

That’s not the case.

这不是事实.

 

[点拨]

as was the case with=as it is the case with 意为“...的情况也是如此”.

as 在句中为关系代词,代指前面的句子.as which 都可以引导非限制性定语从句,用来代指整个句子.

e.g.1

As we all know, the earth goes around the sun.

我们都知道,地球围太阳转.

e.g.2

It was raining hard, which kept us indoors.

 

as which常可互换,但仍有区别:从句置于句首,只用as不用which

 

It is sometimes said that a society can be judged by the way it cares for its weakest members.

[点拨]

It’s said that … 为固定句型,意为“据说...”

e.g.

It’s said that Cai lun invented the paper.

 

[点拨]

say 用法小结

1.说讲,say hello to sb 向某人说好

2.写道,报道

e.g.

The radio says heavy rain in the afternoon.

广播中预报今天下午有大雨.

3.说明,表明

e.g.

My watch says 5:30.

4.(常用于虚拟语气、祈使句)比如说,即使说

e.g.

If a substance has a higher density, say 5,000kg/m3, it will not float on water.

如果一个物体有更大的密度,比如说,5,000kg/m3,它将不能浮在水面上.

 

[点拨]

It cares for its weakest members the way 的定语从句,the way 后省略that in which

e.g.

Is this the way you do it?

这就是你做那事的方法吗?

 

[点拨]

care for 用法小结

1.喜欢,想要

e.g.

I shouldn’t care for that man to be my doctor.

我不想要那个人替我看病.

2.爱好,喜好

e.g.

Do you care for modern music?

你爱听现代音乐吗?

3.照顾,养活

e.g.

Who will care for the children if their mother dies?

如果这些孩子的母亲死了,谁将照顾他们?

 

We must make sure that no one is left behind.

我们必须确保没有人落在后面.

[点拨]

leave sth/sb behind 意为“留下,遗落,忘记携带”

e.g.1

The luggage has been left behind!

行李忘记带了.

e.g.2

Don’t leave me behind!

不要把我忘了.

Make sure that sick people get treated properly.

确保病人得到正确的医治.

[点拨]

get treated=be treated 表被动

get 作连系动词的用法

 

sb. get +

burnt

被烧伤

lost

迷路了

hurt

受伤了

drunk

喝醉了

killed

丧命

married

结婚

excited

激动

changed

换衣服

paid

被付酬金

trapped

陷入困境

… it is not possible for the government to meet all the needs.

政府不可能满足所有的需要.

[点拨]

meet 此处为“满足,适应”讲

e.g.1

meet the challenge/demand

迎接挑战/满足要求

e.g.2

make  (both) ends meet

使收支相抵;维持生活

… are signs that the government is serious about health care.

...是政府重视医疗保健的标志.

[点拨]

that引导的句子此处作signs的同位语从句,是对signs的解释说明.

 

注意同位语从句与定语从句的区分:

e.g.1

The news that the plane would take off on time mode everybody happy.

e.g.2

The news that is spreading around the airport is about the accident.

 

例句1that 引导的同位语从句,对news解释说明,that 在从句中不充当任何成分.例句2that引导的句子是对news的限制,that在从句中充当主语.

 

 

 Integrating Skill

… was not until after the war that he made his most important discovery.

直到战争之后,他才作出他最大的发现.

[点拨]

此句为not until 的强调句,正常语序应为:

He didn’t make his most important discovery until after the war.

e.g.

It was not until 250 years later that they formed a single state.

直到250年之后,他们才形成了独自的国家.

 

Fleming was cleaning up the lab after coming home from a holiday.

弗来明度假到家正打扫实验室.

[点拨]

clean up意为“收拾整理;打扫干净”

e.g.1

Clean up the pieces of broken bottle.

把瓶子的碎片打扫干净.

e.g.2

Wait till I get cleaned up.

等我把自己收拾停当.

Despite their lack of interest, …

尽管其他科学家对他的发现缺乏兴趣,...

[点拨]

despite为介词,意为“尽管”,后接名词或名词短语,意思和in spite of 意思相同,但较文气一此.

e.g.1

He came to the meeting despite his serious illness.

e.g.2

Despite the terrible flood of bad novels and poor work, there are good novelists.

尽管低劣的小说和作品泛滥,仍旧有优秀的小说家.

 

[点拨]

lack 此处为名词“缺乏”,后常接of

e.g.

lack of water 缺水/ no lack of 不缺 / for (by,from, through) lack of 因...缺乏

         Lack sth  缺乏         be lacking in 缺乏

 

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