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宋的博客

逆水行舟,不进则退

 
 
 

日志

 
 

unit11  

2008-07-28 10:15:42|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Warming up

What criteria do you use to accept people as friends?

你使用什么标准来接纳人作为朋友?

[点拨]  criteriacriterion的复数形式,表示评判或作决定的标准、原则的意思。

e.g.: what criteria are used for assessing a student’s ability.

用什么标准来来评定一个学生的能力?

Do you with your friends through thick and thin?

你会不顾艰难困苦和朋友不分离吗?

[点拨] stick v. (stuck—stuck)

① push sth into sth  ---刺入、插入;刺戳、插入

The nurse stuck the needle into my arm.

护士把针扎入我的胳膊。

Don’t stick your fingers through the bars of the cage.

不要把指头伸进笼子里。

I found a snail sticking in the tyre.

    我发现轮子上扎了一根钉子。

粘贴、粘住

He stuck a stamp on the envelope.

他把一张邮票贴在信封上。

放置

Stick your bags down there..

把你们的包搁到那儿吧。

卡住、陷住

The key has stuck in the lock..

钥匙卡在锁里了。

容忍、忍受 (通常用于疑问句和否定句;接人/物)

I don’t know how you stick that job .

我不知道那活儿你怎么受得了。

     stick  n

枝条、枯枝、火柴辊儿、木棍

we collected dry sticks to start a fire .

我们捡了些枯枝生起火来。

the old lady leant on her stick as she talked .

老太太说话时时拄着拐棍。

     stick with

紧跟、不离开

Please stick with him if you want to get help .

持续、坚持   相当于continue with / continue doing

They decided to stick with their original plan .

他们决定继续执行原来的计划。

▲Stick to 坚持(计划、原则、决定、诺言等)

If you stick to the truth ,you have nothing to fear .

如果你坚持真理,你就没有什么好怕的。

[点拨] through thick and thin “不顾艰难险阻赴汤蹈火同甘共苦

He has supported the team for over ten years through thick and thin .

十多年来,他不顾艰难支持这个队。

What is the moment for you to pull out of a friendship ?

你在什么时候退出和朋友的友谊。

[点拨] Pull out of  脱离使退出

They are pulling their troops out of the war zone.

他们正从战区撤出军队。

Listening

What type of media do you read ?

你读哪类媒体信息。

[点拨] Media medium的复数形式,常加定冠词,表示传播媒介媒体

The media后虽说应用复数动词,但也可用单数动词。

e.g.: The media are (is) to blame for starting the rumors.

引起这些谣言得怪媒体。

2. Media n. [c] “媒介物介体

e.g.: The atmosphere is a medium for sound waves.

大气是声波的媒介物。

e.g.: Copper is a good medium for the conduction of heat and electricity.

铜是热和电的优良导体。

Fill in the most important percentages mentioned in the text .

填写出文中提到的最重要的百分数。

[点拨] Percentage“百分比多与of连用。作主语时,谓语动词使用单数形式还是复数形后面名词的单复数决定。

What percentage of babies die of this disease every year?

每年死于这种疾病的婴儿占多少个百分比?

Per cent,也可写成 percent ,表示百分之的含义,多与of连用。如果作主语,谓语动词用单数或复数形式。

About 90 percent of most food is water .

大部分食物中约有百分之九十的水。

I paid him six per cent interest .

我付给他百分之六的信息。

…and match their listening behavior to the statistics in the bar chart below

把听的结果和下面条形表中的统计数字搭配起来。

[点拨]  Statistics“统计学为单数含义;还可表示统计数学”“统计资料,这时为复数含义。

Statistics is a rather modern branch of mathematics .

统计学是数学一个相当现代的分支。

Statistics show that there are more boys than girls at school.

统计数字表明学校的男生比女生多。

Speaking

…one of your other colleagues who is known to have stolen things in the past is suspected of having stolen the camera.

你的一个大家都熟悉的过去曾经偷过东西的同事被怀疑偷了这个相机。

[点拨] to have known 是动词不定式的完成时,表示先于前面动词发生的动作。动词不定式的进行式表示和前面动词同时进行的动作。

e.g.: He pretended to sleep right now. 他假装着立即去睡觉。

    He pretended to be sleeping. 他假装着正在睡觉。

    He pretended to have just slept. 他假装着刚睡醒。

[点拨]  suspect 用法如下:

1.       suspect: V. 疑有、觉得(某事要发生)

e.g.: If you suspect a gas leak, do not strike a match or even turn on an electric light.

   假如你怀疑有煤气泄漏,不要划火柴,甚至连电灯都不要开。

e.g.: I began to suspect (that) they were trying to get rid of me.

   我开始察觉出,他们试图摆脱掉我。

2.       suspect: V.怀疑、感觉有问题、不信任。

I suspected her motives in offering to help.

他主动要帮忙,我怀疑他的动机。

3.       suspect: V.怀疑某人有罪,这时注意固定短语。

       suspect  sb. of sth. /doing sth.. 

4.       suspect: 还可作名词,嫌疑犯嫌疑分子

suspected. 作形容词:被怀疑的

The company cater to various restaurants in the city where you live.

这家公司满足你所生活的城市里各类饭店的需求。

[点拨] cater for/to…“提供迎合

    cater for 指给人们提供正当需求的东西。

    cater to 指给人们提供不合适的、不健康的东西。

    e.g.: TV programmers usually cater for all tastes.电视通常提供各种不同趣味的节目。

Some tabloid newspapers cater to low tastes.

        有些小型报纸迎合低级趣味。

While working there you discover that the management does not take proper measures to ensure hygiene and safety of food products.

在那儿工作时你会发现管理者没有采取恰当的措施来保证食品的卫生和安全。

 [点拨]   while working there… 这是一个省略了主语和be动词的从句,完整句子是:while you are working there…

英语中,有些表示时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语等的从句中,如果谓语包含有动词be,主语和句中的主语一致,或者主语是it,就常常可以把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉。

e.g.: Look out for cars when you are crossing the street.过街时注意车辆。

e.g.: If it is not well managed, electricity can be harmful.如果管理不善,电还可能有害处。

e.g.: She hurriedly left the rooms as though she was angry.

   她急匆匆的走出房子,好像很生气的样子。

e.g.: If it is impossible, I should like to have two copies of it.可能的话,我希望有两本。

 如果这类从句的主语和它所修饰的非谓语动词的逻辑上的主语一致时,也可作这样的省略。

e.g.: She advised me not to say anything until I was asked.她劝我别说什么,除非有人要我说。

[点拨] ensure “保证确保

   动词前缀“en-”可以和名词、形容词构成动词。

   endanger 危及、危害

   encircle  环绕、围绕

   encourage 鼓励

   enlarge   扩大

   enrich    使丰富

   enable    使能够

To go there and come back by bike will only take about half an hour…

骑自行车来回仅用半个小时的时间。

[点拨] 此句可改为:It will only take (him) about half an hour to go there and come back by bike.

Reading:

Is it necessary to work with others?

有必要和其他人合作吗?

[点拨] 句中的it没有具体意义,只是形式主语,代替真正主语to work with others,并且后移,使句子显得平稳一些。借助it作形式主语并后移的主语有三种:不定式,动名词和从句。

e.g.: It is our duty to attend to this matter.处理这件事是我们的责任。

e.g.: It is no use talking to him about it.和他谈这事没有用。

e.g.: It was clear that they had no desire for peace.很清楚他们没有和平的诚意。

e.g.: It seems that comrade Wang’s idea is more practical.看起来老吴的意见更实际一些。

What if you feel comfortable about doing a task by yourself?

要是你一个人完成一项任务感到很舒服又会怎么样呢?

[点拨]  What if…表示要是。。。会怎么样呢?相当于What would happen if…?

   e.g.: What if the train is late? 火车要是晚点会怎么样呢?

   e.g.: What if she forgets to bring it? 要是他忘记带来会怎么样呢?

…it sometimes feels as if we are being asked to work in teams for the sake of just that.

有时候学校让人感到好像我们一直被要求为了团队协作而协作。

[点拨]  for the sake of 为了。。。起见,因。。。的缘故。

e.g.: They stayed together for the sake of the children.

为了孩子,他们还呆在一起。

School life is a preparation for our working days to come.

学校生活是为后来的工作岁月而准备的。

[点拨]  Preparation 相关的短语

preparation for 为。。。的准备

in preparation 在准备中

make preparation for sth. 为。。。准备

Make preparations to do为。。。准备(注意此短语preparation用复数)

[点拨]  prepare V. 动词  相关短语如下:

1.       prepare sth./sb. for sb./sth.为。。。做准备

 e.g.: A hotel room is prepared for them.正在为他们准备一间旅馆客房。

 e.g.: The police are preparing themselves for trouble at the meeting.

      警察正在准备防范集合时可能出现的骚乱。

2.       prepare to do 准备做某事

 e.g.: I was preparing to leave. 我正准备离开。

3.       prepare sb. to do 准备让某人做某事。

e.g.: His parents prepare him to go traveling tomorrow. 他的爸妈准备让他明天去远行。

 [点拨]  prepared adj.“准备好的   相关的短语:

   1.be prepared for相当于be ready for

      表示为。。。做好准备

e.g.: I was not prepared for all the problems it caused.

        我对这事引起的诸多麻烦毫无防备。

2. be prepared to do 相当于be  willing to do 表示愿意。。。

e.g.: We were not prepared to accept these conditions.

我们无意接受这些条件。

A type of team we are all familiar with are sports teams.

  我们大家都熟悉的一种团队是运动队。

 [点拨] be familiar with sth.“(人)对某物熟悉

be familiar to sb. “(物)对某人来说是熟悉的

e.g.: The smell is very familiar to everyone who lives near a bakery.

住在面包房附近的人都很熟悉这种气味。

e.g.: Are you familiar with the computer software they use?

你熟悉他们使用的计算机软件吗?

…and responsibilities attached to each role 依附于每个角色的责任。

[点拨] 1.attached to sb./sth. 依恋、爱慕

    e.g.: I’ve never seen two people so attached to each other.

        我从未见过两个人如此形影不离。

   2.attached to sth. 附属于,为。。。工作

    e.g.: The research unit is attached to the university. 这个研究单位附属于大学。

3.attach. V. to fasten or join one thing to another. 把。。。固定,把。。。附在。。。上

e.g.: Attach the photo to the front of your letter. 把照片附在信的正面。

When forming teams to complete tasks at school, we are often hardly aware of this.

在学校里,当我们为完成任务组成团队时,我们根本意识不到这一点。

[点拨] aware  adj. 知道的,意识到的,觉察到的。常见短语:

   aware of sth./sb.=aware that-clause 知道、意识到、觉察到

  e.g.: He was well of the problems. 他很清楚这个问题。

  e.g.: Were you aware that something was wrong. 你有没有意识到已经出了问题?

  e.g.: She slipped away without him being aware of. 她悄悄离开,没有让他发觉。

…and it teaches us to be patient and how to respond to different personalities.

实践教会我们耐心,并且怎样对不同个性的人作出反应。

[点拨] respond to 意思如下:

  1.to give a spoken or written answer to (口头或书面)回答,回应。相当于reply to

   e.g.: She never responded to my letter. 她从来没给我回过信。

  2.How did they respond to the news? 他们对这一消息有什么反应。

3.反应灵敏,作出正确反应

The car responds very well to the controls. 这汽车操纵自如。

As with sports teams, group work can only be successful when group members respect, help and support each other, while the work division is clear and each member perfoms at the right level in the role that is most suitable to him or her.

.体育运动队也是如此。尽管运动员分工明确,每个队员在最适合自己的位置上发挥恰当的作用,但是只有当队员们相互尊重,相互帮助,相互支持时,队伍才能取得成功。

[点拨]  As with sports teams, =As/So it is with sports teams

[点拨]  while 意思是“although/in spite of the fact” “虽然;尽管之意,常置于句首。

e.g.: While I am willing to help, I do not have much time available.

    尽管我愿意帮忙,但是没有多少时间。

…while people who are mainly listening and commenting are often the ones to keep an eye on procedures that must be followed.

而那些主要发表评论和听取评论的人经常是那些关注必须遵守的比赛程序的人。

[点拨]  keep an eye on 相当于take care sb./sth.照看、留神、留意之意。

   e.g.: We’ve asked the neighbors to keep an eye on the house for us while we are away.

       我们已请邻居在我们离开时帮我们照看房子。

How the tasks of the group are divided depends on the personalities and abilities of the individuals in the group.

如何分配团队的任务取决于队伍中每个人的特性和能力。

[点拨] 1.How the tasks of the group are divided 是由连接副词how引导的主语从句

   e.g.: When we shall have our sports meet is still a question.

       =It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet.

   e.g.: Whether he will join us won’t make too much difference.

       =It won’t make too much difference whether he will join us.

   2.主语从句还可由what等代词引导,这一情况不使用it作形式主语

   e.g.: What you need is more practice. 你需要的是更多的练习。

   e.g.: Whatever wad said here must be kept secret.这里说的任何话都应当保密。

   3.主语从句还可以由连词that引导。这一情况大多将主语从句后置,而it用作形式上的主语,口语中that可以省略

   e.g.: It’s not your fault that this has happened.发生了这样的事不是你的错。

[点拨] 1.depend on/ upon  依靠”“靠。。。决定

   e.g.: The town depends solely on its tourist industry. 这座城市完全依靠它的旅游业。

   e.g.: His success depends upon effect and ability.他是否成功取决于他的努力和能力。

   2.It depends/ It depends+从句  固定用法,译为得看情况

    e.g.: —Are you going?“你去吗?

        —It all depends. “得看情况

    e.g.: It depends what you are willing to pay. 得看你愿意付多少钱。

    e.g.: It depends where you live. 得看你住在哪儿。

To make the best of working with our classmates, it is important to recognize their strengths and weaknesses.

为了尽力与同学们合作,认可他们的优势和弱势是很重要的。

[点拨] 注意下列短语:

1.       make the best of sth./ doing sth.=try one’s best to do“尽力而为做某事

2.       make the most of “充分利用,尽情享受

   e.g.: It’s my first trip abroad so I’m going to make the most of it.

       这是我第一次出国,我要充分利用这个机会。

3.       make use of  利用(时间,物体)

make full /good use of “充分(好好)利用

make the best use of “最佳利用…”

e.g.: Please make full use of your spare time to earn some money.请充分利用空闲时间赚点钱。

4.       make much of sb./ sth. “重视;认为很重要相当于 treat sb. as very important.   e.g.: He always makes much of his appearance.他总是非常在意他的外表。

[点拨]  recognize V. 也可写成recognised  此处译为(正式)认可、接受、赞成

    e.g.: He is recognized/ recognised to be their natural leader.人们都承认他是他们当然的领袖。

Integrating skills:

  

She had herself independent, and was able to manage for finances.

她已经独立,能够很合理地支配自己的经济收入。

  [点拨]  manage 此处意思是“to use money, time, information,etc, in a sensible way”  明知的使用(金钱、时间、信息等)

e.g.: Don’t tell me how to manage my incomes.

用不着你来告诉我怎样使用我的收入。

  [点拨]  finance 作为不可数名词,意思是资金”“财政、金融、财务

finances是复数形式,表示(个人、组织、国家的)财力、财源、财务管理

e.g.: Finance for education comes from taxpayers.教育经费来自纳税人。

e.g.: the Minister of Finance财政部长

    the finance director财务主任

e.g.: It’s about time you sorted out your finances.现在是你整顿财务状况的时候了。

…she decided to put that to good use.她决定有效地利用那些钱。

  [点拨]  put sth. to good use 意思是有效地利用(使用)相当于make good use of sth.

e.g.: She’ll be able to put her languages to good use in her new job.

 她在新工作中应该可以好好运用她会的各种语言。

This time she decided on a practical course to learn how to do make-up.

这次她决定学一门如何化妆的实际课程。

[点拨] 1.make-up此处为名词,有化妆之意

   2.make yourself/ sb. up“化妆”“上装

[点拨]  make up

   1.“构成,形成

     e.g.: Women make up 56% of the students numbers.女生占学生人数的56%

   2.“编造故事(或谎言等)

     e.g.: He made up some excuse about his daughter being sick.。他编造了一些借口,说他的女儿病倒了。

   3.“补上失去的东西,做出补偿;弥补常用短语make up of

     e.g.: Nothing can make up for the loss of a child.失去一个孩子是任何东西都无法补偿的。

     e.g.: After all the delays, we were anxious to make up for lost time.耽搁了这么久,我们急着想弥补失去的时间

   4. 相关短语

     make up to sb. for sth. 对某人表示歉意,给予补偿

     make up to sb. 献媚,奉承,讨好某人

     make up with sb. 同某人言归于好

Many people tend to listen to their parents or to their teachers and they often have expectations are hard to live up to.

许多人往往听父母或老师的意志,他们常常拥有一种很难实现的期望。

[点拨] 1.tend to do 此处译为往往会”“常常就

     e.g.: Women tend to live longer than men.女人往往比男人长寿。

     e.g.: When I’m tired, I tend to make mistakes.我累了就容易出错。

   2.tend to/ towards sth.

     e.g.: His views tend towards the extreme.他的观点趋于偏激。

     e.g.: Prices have tended downwards over recent years.近年来物价趋于下降。

   3.tend (to) sb./sth. 相当于care for sb./sth.“照料”“照管”“护理

     e.g.: Doctors and nurses tended the injured.医生和护士护理受伤者。

[点拨]  live up to “达到;符合;不辜负(他人的期望)

     e.g.: He failed to live up to his parents’ expectations.他辜负了父母的期望。

…but is going to university really the idea career for most people?

但是上大学真的是大多数人的理想前途吗?

[点拨] 这是一个疑问句。going to university 是动名词做主语。

It is well-known that at the age of 17 to 18, many people dream of going to university.

众所周知,在十七、八岁时,很多年轻人梦想上大学。

[点拨]  It is well-known that-从句:能用这种从句做主语的带it的结构,常见的有下面几点:

  1. It is+ 抽象名词+that-从句

    e.g.: It is a shame that none of us has passed the test.

        我们没有一个人通过这次测试,太不好意思了。

  2. It is+ 形容词+that-从句

    e.g.: It is natural that there is thunderstorm in summer. 夏天有雷雨是很自然的。

  3. It+ 动词+that-从句

    e.g.: It happened that the electricity was off. 当时碰巧停电。

  4. It +be + 过去分词+that-从句

    e.g.: It was reported that 2008 Olympic Games would be hold in Beijing. 据报道,2008年奥运会将在北京举行。

  5.这类主语从句也可用连接副词或哦连接代词引导。

    e.g.: It doesn’t matter whether he will come to the party or not.

         他是否来参加晚会无关紧要。

    e.g.: It is not decided who will take charge of the company.

         谁来掌管这家公司还没有定下来。

 [点拨]  dream of sth./doing : “梦想做某事

No matter how hard you try, working towards a career for which you are not suitable is not going to get you there.

 无论你多么努力尝试,朝一个不适合的职业奋斗你不会有结果。

[点拨]  No matter how hard you try, 相当于However hard you try, 引导让步状语从句,类似的短语有:

  no matter who /what /which /where /when 相当于whoever /whatever /whichever /wherever /whenever  但前者只充当状语从句,后者可充当状语从句,主语从句,宾语从句。

 e.g.: Whatever (No matter what) you say, I won’t believe. 不管你说什么,我决不相信你的话。

e.g.:  I’ll eat for whatever (≠no matter what) you give me. 你给我什么我就吃什么。

It’s no use for everybody to try to pursue the same career.

每个人都追求同一职业是没有用的。

[点拨]  It’s (no) use doing  一般不使用It’s (no) use to do  类似的有:

   It’s (no) good doing  不使用It’s (no) good to do  但可以说It’s (no) use /good for sb. to do…

By following your own interests will ensure that you arrive at the best possible station in life.

遵循自己的兴趣,你保证会达到人生可能达到的最佳位置。

[点拨] 这是一个以by介词短语放在句首的倒装句。自然语序是:You will ensure that you arrive at the best possible station in life by following your own interests.

People have different personality types, and connected to these types are different learning styles.

人们拥有不同的性格类型,和这些不同性格类型相关联的是不同的学习风格。

[点拨] 这是一个将表语connected to these types前置的倒装句,自然语序是…and different learning styles are connected to these types.

These characteristics combine in unique ways in each person, forming personality types, each made up of different inner processors and ways of functioning in the world.

这些性格特征以特有的方式融合在每个人的身上,形式不同的性格类型,各种性格类型是由不同的内心变化和外部各种方式作用的结果。

    [点拨] each made up of different inner processors and ways of… 是独立结构,做伴随状语,修饰forming personality types 独立结构常由名词(或代词)和另一成分构成的复合结构担任。常见的复合结构有下面几类:

        名词/代词+分词/形容词/不定式/介词短语/副词

      e.g.: He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. 他脸朝天,头枕着手躺着。

      e.g.: He entered the room, his nose red with cold.

           他鼻子冻的通红地走进房来。

        独立结构根据其在句子中的不同状语成分,可替换为相应的状语从句。如上两句是伴随状语,可改为并列句。

      e.g.: He lay on his back, and his hands crossed under his head.

      e.g.: He entered the room, and his nose was red with cold.

      e.g.: Spring coming on, the trees turned green.  (时间状语)

          =>When spring comes on, the trees turned green.  (改为时间状语从句)

           春天来了,树都绿了。

 

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