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unit6  

2008-07-28 10:09:38|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 6  Going  west

 

整体感知

单元要点

Word study

1.perseverance 2.quit 3.circumstance

4.assessment 5.survival 6.biscuit

7.flour  8.bedding  9.frontier

10.barren  11.salty  12.drinkable

13.burden  14.desperate  15.beast

16.accustomed  17.thirst  18.starvation

19.anxiety  20.tax  21.anniversary

22.throat  23.catastrophe  24.relief

25.deliver  26.tough   27.quilt

28.sculpture  29.memorial  30.properly

1.坚持不懈 2.放弃,停止 3.环境

4.评价  5.幸存  6.饼干

7.面粉  8.铺盖  9.边界

10.贫瘠的 11.含盐的 12.可饮用的

13.负担  14 .绝望的 15.兽;动物

16.习惯的 17.渴;渴望 18.饿死

19.忧虑 20.税;税额 21.周年纪念

22.嗓子 23突如其来的大灾难24.减轻或解除(痛苦、忧虑等)

25.递送  26.困难的 27.被子

28.雕塑雕刻 29.纪念馆 30.适当地

Useful expressions

1.       apply…to  2.add up  3.lose heart

4.take it easy  5.keep up  6.common sense  7.leave behind   8.lose one’s way

9.come to an end  10.tie up  11.go for

12.live through sth 13.satisty one’s needs

14.in need of  15.set off  16.suffer from

1.运用;应用 2.加起来 3.泄气;灰心

4.别紧张  5.保持;维持 6.常识

7.望带;留下  8.迷路  9.结束;终止

10.系;拴;捆 11.努力获取

12.经历某事物而幸存 13.满足某人的需要  14.需要  15.出发  16.因…   受苦

Sentence patterns & Communicative English

描述个人能力和毅力:

I can achieve my goals.   I am more of a leader than a follow .  I never disappointed for very long.   I can quickly adapt myself to new circumstances.

I am strong and ready for any challenge.  I don’t lose heart when I fail to do something.

按时间顺序描述事件发生过程:

In the spring of 1845, my father read a book about California.

Less than half a year later we packed our things onto a wagon and left our farm.

April 12,1846 was chosen as the day when all should be ready to start.

On November 4,1846, we entered the desert and soon lost our way.

At three o’clock in the morning of Christmas Day we reached the edge of the desert.

Grammar

定语(the Attribute)

1 .掌握定语的表示法(形容词、名词、不定式、介词短语、分词、从句等)

2.定语的位置

3.若干个定语的排列顺序

Topic & Writing

掌握按时间顺序描述故事的英语作文的思路和写作步骤

背景知识

In 1921,Franklin D.Roosevelt took his family sailing one day and he fell into the cold waters. The next day , a forest fire broke out .Franklin and his children helped to fight the forest fire and put it out. It was hard and tiring work . After the fire was put out , Franklin was sick .It was polio(脊髓灰质炎).He could not move his legs .The doctors said he could never walk again.

Many men would give up then. Franklin Roosevelt did not give up. He began to work to get well again. Even though he could not get out of bed, he did exercises, and his shoulders and arms grew very strong .At last the doctors let him out of bed, but he had to wear heavy metal braces(支架; 支撑之物) on his legs .Then he went to Warm Springs , Georgia. He swam in the warm waters there. Even though it was painful to move his legs. He kept on swimming and exercising them . He grew better until he could leave the braces off. He could walk with only a cane to help him.

“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,” President Roosevelt told the people.

细说教材

        Warming up  

To go on till you succeed is what life is all about

坚持直到你成功是生命的全部意义。

[点拨] To go on till you succeed是不定式短语作主语。

   e.g .To accept their offer would be foolish. 接受他们的帮助是愚蠢的。

不定式短语作主语时,往往用it作形式主语。

e.g. It is right to give up smoking. 戒烟是正确的。

 [点拨]  what life is all about 是what引导的表语从句。

      e.g. China is not what it used to be. 中国已不是从前的那个样子了。

Apply the following statements to yourself.

把下面的陈述运用于你自己身上。

[点拨] apply sth (to sth)=make practical use of sth 运用,应用某事物

e.g. We can apply the results of this research to new developments in technology.

   我们能把这项研究成果应用于新的技术开发方面。

 apply sth / oneself to sth/doing sth = concentrate one’s thought and energy (on a task) 集中精力(做事);专心

e.g.1.You will only pass your exams if you really apply yourself to your work.

      你只有真正专心致志(用功),考试才能及格。

e.g.2.We must apply our minds to finding a solution.

      我们要动动脑筋找出解决的办法来。

[点拨] apply (to sb)(for sth)=make a formal request  申请;请求

e.g.1. You should apply immediately , in person or by letter.

     你应该立即申请,亲自去也好,写信也好。

e.g.2. apply to the publishers for permission to reprint an extract

     向出版者请求准予转印节录

e.g.3.apply for a job , post, passport , visa 申请工作、职位、护照、签证

Add up your score on each question.

把每一个问题的分数加起来。

[点拨] add up=calculate the total 加起来

e.g. Add up all the money I owe you. 把我应付你的钱都加在一起。

[归纳] 有关add 的词组:

1.         add sth to sth  加;添;增加  2.add sth 继续说;又说;补充说

3.  add fuel to the flames 火上加油  4.add to sth 增加某事物

5.  add up to sth 总计共达

 I am more of a leader than a follower.

 领导者与追随者相比,我更具备领导者的气质。

[点拨] more… than…与其…倒不如

e.g.1. She is more shy than unfriendly. 与其说她不友好,倒不如说她内向。

e.g.2.This is more a grammar book than a dictionary.

与其说这是一本字典,倒不如说是一本语法书。

[点拨] more than 用法小结:

1.more than =not only 意为“不仅仅,不只是”用来修饰名词。

e.g.His trip to Beijing was more than sightseeing.

   他的北京之行不仅仅是旅游观光。

2. more than = over  多于;超过

e.g.1. more than twenty =over twenty 二十多

e.g.2.  That’s more than I can describe.=That’s beyond my description.

       我很难用语言来描述它。

3.more than =very    很;非常

 e.g. He was more than happy to hear that . 听到那个消息, 他非常高兴。

4.more than one  “不止一个人/物 ”(做主语时,谓语要用单数)

 e.g. More than one person is going to lose his job.

[辨析]  much more …than与 many more …than

        much more +不可数名词+than 比…….大(多)得多

        many more +可数名词复数+than比……多得多

e.g. He has made much more progress this year than (he did )last year.

   今年他的进步比去年大得多。

   There are many more cars this year than last year in the city.

   今年这个城市的汽车比去年多得多。

另外(much)more (…than)还可以表示为多音节的形容词、副词的比较级。

 e.g. He is much more careful than he used to be.

    他比以前要认真得多。

[辨析]: no more than 与not more than

1.         当两者在数量上进行比较时, no more than 表示“仅仅”“只有”;而not more than只有客观地表示“不超过,至多”,没有说话人对数量多少或事物大小的主观态度或口气,而no more than 主要用来表达说话人的主观看法或口气。强调数量之少,事物之小或微不足道。

e.g.1.He was so poor that he had no more than ten dollars.

    他穷得只剩下10美元了。(只有10美元)

e.g.2.He said he had not more than ten dollars.

    他说他最多有10美元。(至多10美元,可能不到10美元)

2.         当两者在程度上进行比较时, no more …than…表示“两者一样都不”; 而not more than则表示“一方不及另一方”之意。

e.g.1.This novel is no more interesting than that one.

    这本小说不比那本小说有趣。(意为“两本一样都没有趣”)

e.g.2.This novel is not more interesting than that one. 这本小说不及那本小说有趣。

 [词组] more and more  越来越多 ,more or less 或多或少, what is more 而且,更有甚者

I can quickly adapt myself to new circumstances.

 我能很快使自己适应新的环境。

[点拨] adapt (oneself) (to sth)=become adjusted to new conditions,etc.  “适应(新环境等)”

e.g. She adapted herself quickly to the new climate.

   她很快地适应了这种新的气候。

I don’t lose heart when I fail to do something.

当我没能做好某件事情的时候, 我并不灰心。

[点拨] lose heart=become discouraged “泄气, 灰心 ”  该词组不能在heart前加 one’s

lose 的有关词组:

lose one’s breath 气喘咻咻;上气不接下气   lose courage 丧失勇气,沮丧

lose face   丢脸,丧失声誉               lose one’s head 昏了头,冲动

lose one’s heart (to sb/sth) 爱上,钟情于     lose one’s life 丧生

lose one’s way 迷路                      lose touch with (sb/sth)失去联系

lose one’s voice 失音,嗓子哑             lose interest in  失去兴趣

You will do better if you take it easy.

假如你放松点,你会做得更好。

[点拨] take it easy =relax; not work too much or do too much “放松;不过分努力;不做过多”

该词组还可以说 take things easy

e.g. I like to take things/it easy when I’m on holiday. 我在假日愿意轻松一些。

  有关take的词组:

take after sb (在长相或性格方面)像(其母亲或父亲)

take away  拿走 take in 欺骗,蒙蔽某人;收容某人

take off 脱下(衣服、帽子等)(不及物)起飞

take up 拿起,从事,占用          take on  呈现  take sb on 雇佣某人

take a walk/rest= have a walk/rest      take one’s time 从容,慢慢行动

take sth.in one’s arms  抱            take out  取出  take place 发生

take food /medicine  吃食物/药      take the place of 取代,代替

take sth.for granted 想当然          take sb.for   误认为

Keep up the good work!

保持好的工作。

[点拨] keep up =continue sth at the same level 保持,维持

e.g.They sang songs to keep their morale up. 他们唱着歌以保持高昂的士气。

牢记下面keep 所构成的短语:

 keep (sb/sth)away(from sb/sth)使某人/某事物不靠近某人/某事

 keep back 阻止            keep off 远离,不接近  keep on 继续

 keep out (of)使…不进入     keep up with  跟上,赶上

 keep down  蹲下,控制    keep one’s word 守信

    Listening         

What makes the differences in the narrator’s approach to his own situation?

为了摆脱自己的处境,讲述者所用的方法有什么独到之处?

[点拨] make a /some /no/any/not much/a great deal of difference  “有(颇有,没有,有何,没有多大,有很大)差别,重要性”

      e.g.1.Flowers make no difference to a room. 房间里有没有花没什么差别。

      [点拨] 1.tell the difference between A and B “说出A 和B之间的区别”

      e.g. A lot of people can’t tell the differences between an American accent and a Canadian accent.许多人说不出美国口音和加拿大口音之间的区别。

     2. A is different from B.  “A 与B是不同的”

      e.g. Mary is different from Jane.玛莉和珍是不同的。

     3.split the difference “折中,”“彼此将就”

      e.g. You say $10 and I say $12, so let’s split the difference and call it $11.

         你说10美元,我说12美元,大家将就一下算11好了。

Why does the narrator blame himself for his fate ?

讲述者为什么责怪自己的命运?

[点拨] blame 的用法小结:

1.           blame sth on sb  “把某事归咎于某人”

e.g. They blamed the failure on George . 他们把失败归咎于乔治。

2.           blame sb for sth “把某事归咎于某人”

e.g. They blamed George for the failure. 他们把失败归咎于乔治。

   be to blame for “应负责任,应受谴责”

e.g. Who is to blame for starting the fire ? 火灾之引起应由谁来负责?

   bear /take the blame (for sth) “(对某事)负责”

e.g. We were ready to take /bear the blame for what had happened.

   我们准备对所发生的事情承担责任?

3.           put /lay the blame on sb(for sth) “(将某事)归咎于某人”

e.g. The judge laid /put the blame on the driver of the car for the accident.

   法官判定汽车的驾驶员应对该意外事件负责。

      Speaking           

All alone, and with very few tools ,he managed to survive on the island for more than 27years.

在几乎没有工具的情况下, 他孤零零地在岛屿上设法生存了27年多。

[点拨]  all alone =by oneself 这里的 all相当于“completely ”

        e.g. She lives all alone/ all by oneself. 她独自一个人生活。

[辨析]  lonely与 alone:

lonely只能作形容词,不可作副词。它既可作表语,也可作定语。作表语时,alone指没有别的人,意为“独自,单独”;lonely指一种心理状态,意为“寂寞,孤独”。指因缺少朋友、同情、友谊所产生的一种悲伤和忧郁的感情。

e.g. He doesn’t feel lonely when he is alone. 即使他独自一人时也不感到寂寞。

另外,alone用作副词,译为“独自”,“单独”

e.g. She dared not go home alone. 她不敢独自回家。

      识记有关alone的词组:

  leave/let sb/sth alone   “听其自然,不予干涉”

e.g. You had better leave that dog alone ;it will bite you if you tease it.

你最好不要去惹那只狗;如果你捉弄它,它会咬你的.

let alone  “ 且不论,至于…更不必说”

e.g.He can’t find money for necessities, let alone such luxuries as wine and tobacco.

               他连生活必需品都无钱购买,更不必说烟、酒等奢侈品了。

…and talk how you will satisfy your basic needs on the island for many years to come,…谈论一下在随后到来的许多年里,你将在岛屿上如何满足你的基本需要…

[点拨]  satisfy 的用法小结:

1.satisfy sb.“使某人满足或满意”

    e.g. Nothing satisfies him :he’s always complaining. 她对什么都不满意,总是在抱怨。

2.satisfy one’s need /desire /demand /curiosity “满足某人的需要(欲望、要求、好奇心)

e.g. Soon they produced enough TV sets to satisfy people’s demands.

  很快, 他们生产了足够多的彩电来满足人们的需求。

3.be satisfied with “对…满意”

e.g. I was quite satisfied with what he had done. 我对他所做的一切感到满意.

4.express one’s satisfaction with “对…表示满意”

   e.g. The teacher expressed his satisfaction with the students’ results after the test.

     考试后,老师对学生们的成绩很满意.

5.with satisfaction  “满意地”

e.g. He nodded with satisfaction. 他满意地点点头.

6.to one’s satisfaction “使某人满意的是”

e.g. The war came to an end, to the satisfaction of everybody.

   战争结束了,人人都非常高兴.

Reading    

This account of the wonderful land beyond the Rocky Mountains gave him the idea to move there. 书中对于落矶山脉旁边的那块神奇地带的描述,使父亲萌生了去那儿的念头。

[点拨] beyond 的用法:

     prep. 1.在…远处,在…那一边

          e.g.The new housing estate stretches beyond the playing-fields.

             新的住宅区一直延伸到游乐场的那一边。

          2.迟于或超过(某一时间)

          e.g. It won’t go on beyond midnight. 这不会持续到午夜以后。

          3.越出(某事物)范围

          e.g. The bicycle is beyond repair. 这辆自行车已不能修理了。

          4.除…以外

          e.g. He’s got nothing beyond his state pension.

             除了国家发的养老金,他一无所有。

          5.beyond sb. 对于某人来说难以想象、理解或估计

          e.g. It’s beyond me why she wants to marry Geoff.

             我不能理解她为什么要和杰弗结婚。

   adv. 在远处,向远方

         e.g.The immediate future is clear, but it’s hard to tell what lies beyond.

          近期内的情况很清楚,但很难说以后如何。

It was not easy to decide what to take and what to leave behind.

决定带什么和不带什么是不容易的。

[点拨]  “what to take and what to leave behind”是“疑问词+不定式”结构在句中作宾语。“疑问词+不定式”在句中可单独作主语、表语、宾语等.

       e.g.1.How to deal with the problem puzzled us .(主语)

如何处理这个问题使我们感到困惑。

       e.g.2.You must learn how to be patient.(宾语)你必须学会如何保持耐心。

       e.g3.The problem was where to find the right person for the job.(表语)

问题是到哪儿找到合适的人干这工作。

[点拨] leave sb/sth behind“未能或忘记带某人/某物”

      e.g. It won’t rain, you can leave your umbrella behind.

         不会下雨,你不必带伞了。

By the middle of October we set off for our journey across the continent

到了十月中旬,我们动身开始了横跨大陆之旅

[点拨] 1.set off for +地点 “朝某地出发或动身”

      e.g. Einstein’s family set off for the States in 1933.

爱因斯坦一家在1933年动身去美国。 

     2.set off 还可以作及物动词,“使爆发/爆炸” “引起”

       e.g.1.A slight touch will set the bomb off. 稍一触动就会使炸弹爆炸。

       e.g.2.Martin’s speech set off a wave of anger. 马丁的演说激起了愤怒的浪潮。

     3.set out to do sth./ set about doing sth . “开始/着手做某事”

       e.g. The new government must set about finding(set out to find) solutions to the country’s economic problems.

          新政府必须立即找出解决国家经济问题的办法。

[归纳] 有关“出发、动身”的短语:

      start/ leave /set off /set out 动身

      start for A 动身前往A 地    sail for A 启航前往A 地

leave (B) for A/ set off (B) for A /set out (B)for A (离开B地)动身前往A 地

      head for A/ make way for A/  向A 地进发

This was the meeting place for people moving to the west.

这是对于进行西部之旅的人们集合的地方。

[点拨] meeting place “集会的地方” “会面的地方” meeting 是动名词作定语,表示所修饰名词的目的、用途等。

     e.g. a publishing house 出版社   a walking stick  拐杖

[点拨] moving to the west 是现在分词作定语,表示所修饰名词的动作。往往相当于一个定语从句。

     e.g.1.We are brothers sharing (=who share )weal and woe.

          我们是患难与共的兄弟。

     e.g.2.There are a few boys swimming (=who are swimming ) in the stream.

          有几个男孩在小溪里游泳。

…was the most trying part.      …是最难熬的一部分。

[点拨] trying这里用作形容词意为“使人痛苦的”,“难堪的”考验(脾气耐性等的

      e.g. a trying day 难挨的一天     a trying person to deal with 不易相处的人

          work that is trying to the eyes  费眼力的工作

Water that was shown on the map proved to be salty ponds and not drinkable. 地图所示有水的地方,结果却是一些盐湖池,根本不适合饮用。

   [点拨] prove 的用法:

1.                     prove + 名词/代词 “证明,证实”

e.g.The soldier has proved his courage in battle.

2.                     prove +that –clause

e.g.These facts will prove that we are telling the truth.

这些事实将证明我们在说真话。

3.                     prove +复合宾语

e.g. Time will prove me (to be ) right. 时间将证明我是对的。

4.                     prove +(to be )+ adj./n. ( 此句型中的prove是系动词)

e.g. He proved (to be ) an honest friend.

事实证明他是一个诚实的朋友。

The cattle became tired and weak. 牲畜既劳累又虚弱。

[点拨] cattle 牛的总称或牲畜,前面不可加 a ,也没有 cattles 形式。作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

e.g.1Cattle mainly feed on grass.   牛主要吃草。

e.g.2.Twenty head of cattle have been bought in by farmers.

农民们买进了二十头牛。

[提示] 除cattle外,总是用作复数的还有people, police等。

… their tongues hung out in desperate need of water.

它们的舌头伸在外面,极度渴望得到水。

[点拨] hang out 的几种意思:

1.                    伸出来

e.g. A dog’s tongue hangs out when it runs fast. 狗快跑时舌头伸在外面。

2.                    晾(湿衣服)

e.g. She’s in the yard , hanging out the washing. 她在院子里晾洗好的衣服。

3.                    展示

e.g. hang out flags for the Queen’s visit  悬旗迎接女王的莅临

识记构成的短语:

hang abou 闲荡 hang back犹豫 hang on 紧握,坚持忍耐 hang up 挂断电话

[点拨]  1.in need of  “需要”

        e.g. This school is in bad need of English teachers. 这所学校急需英语教师。

        2.There is (no ) need (for sb)to do sth.. “(对某人)来说有(没)必要做某事”

        e.g. There’s no need for you to start yet. 你现在还不必动身。

       3.A friend in need is a friend indeed.(谚语)患难之交才是真正的朋友。

For many weeks we had been accustomed to seeing horses and oxen ,suffering from heat, thirst ,and starvation. 几周来,马、牛饱受酷热、口渴、挨饿之苦。对于这一点我们已经司空见惯了。

  [点拨] be/become accustomed to =be used to “习惯于”这里 的 “to” 是介词.

        e.g. The boy soon became accustomed to hard work and poor food.

那男孩不久就习惯于苦工及劣食了。

   accustom (oneself ) to = make used to “使习惯于”

    e.g. When he became a soldier , he had to accustom himself to long marches.

       当他当兵的时候, 他不得不使自己习惯于长途行军。

Lying around them were chains, guns……在它们周围到处都是锁链、枪……

 [点拨] 该句属于倒装句型。因为进行时态中的分词有时可移到句首。来对这动作加以强调。

e.g. 1.Lying on the floor was a boy aged about seventeen.

   躺在地板上的是一个大约十七岁的男孩。

  e.g.2 Watching the performances were mostly foreign tourists.

   观看演出的大多是一些外国游客。

Each had all he could do to save himself and his animals.每个人唯一能做的就是挽救自己和他的牲畜。

[点拨] 本句中“ he could to  ”是省略  “ that ”引导的定语从句。来修饰all 本句还可以转换为 Each had what he could do to save himself and his animals.类似的句式还有:

      do all (that ) sb can to do sth “尽力做某事”

e.g. She did all she could to help him. 她做她能做的一切来帮助他。

[拓展] 1.sb do everything (that) sb can to do sth

2.sb do all (that) sb can to do sth 

3.sb do what sb can to do sth

4.sb try one’s best to do sth

5.sb do one’s best to do sth 在1---3三个句型中,后面省略了动词do

Our days of hardships had come to an end . 我们艰苦的日子结束了。

[点拨]  come to an end = finish  “结束 ,完成”

e.g. The meeting came to an end at last.会议终于结束了。

come to a bad end   “遭到恶报,得到报应”

e.g. If you don’t give up crime , you’ll come to a bad end.

   如果你不停止犯罪,你会得到报应的。

牢记有关end的词组:

at a loose end 无所事事      make (both)ends meet 量入为出,使收支相抵  

at the end of   结束,到尽头  put an end to sth 结束某事

in the end=finally    by the end of 到…末为止, 不迟于  end (sth) up 结束

Which hardships did they have to live through ?他们不得不经历哪些艰难困苦 ?

[点拨] live through =experience and survive “经历…而未死”

e.g. He has lived through two wars and three revolutions.他亲历两次战争和三次革命。

Integrating skills   

Nome was only a small city of about 1430 souls.诺姆仅是一个大约拥有1430人口的小城。

[点拨]  soul= person  “人,人口”该句还相当于  Nome was only a small city with a population of 1430.

e.g.1.There wasn’t a soul to be seen.连一个人也看不见了。

e.g.2 The ship sank with 200 souls . 那船载着200 人沉没了。

[短语]  the life and soul of the party,etc. (某团体等中的)核心人物,主脑

heart and soul 全心全意

If untreated, it would produce a powerful poison that would kill the patient. 假如这种疾病不予治疗的话,它就会产生一种很强的病毒,危及病人的生命。

[点拨] If untreated =If it wasn’t treated ,这是一个省略句。状语从句中省略一些词是非常普遍的现象,通常省略主语和系动词(如果主语与主句主语相同则可省略)大部分从句中都可以有省略结构:

 e.g.1.She would often sweep when (she was)alone.她一个人时时常哭泣。

 e.g.2.If (it is )necessary , ring me at home .如有必要可往我家里打电话。

 e.g.3. Though (it is )not large ,the room was well lit. 房间虽不大却很亮堂。

 e.g.4. As(it was ) expected , the afforestation movement rapidly spread.

     如预料那样,造林运动迅速展开了。

…that a hospital in Anchorage had a good supply of 300,000 units. 在安克雷奇的一家医院里拥有

[点拨] supply的用法:

vt.  1.供应,提供   

e.g.1.Trees supply shade in summer.树木在夏天提供树荫。

e.g.2. The school supplies books for /to the children.=The school supplies the children with books. 学校为孩子提供书本。

    2.补充,满足

e.g. It’s hard to supply the demand for more and better houses.

   要满足人们对更多更好的房子的要求是很难的。

n. 1. [ U]  供应,供给

e.g. supply and demand供给和需求

   The water supply here is good. 这里的供水不错。

        2.[ C ]供应量(常用复数)供应品

e.g. a good supply of food 大量的食物

   They cut off our medical supplies .他们切断了我们的医药供给。

[短语]  in short supply =scarce  短缺

识记“为某人提供某物”的表达方式:

supply sb with sth.    supply sth to/for sb.

provide sth for sb    provide sb with sth

offter sb sth

… but these were all tough men. …但是这都是一些能耐劳苦的人。

[点拨]tough作为形容词,意思很多:

e.g. a tough job  棘手的工作        a tough criminal  残暴的凶犯

   tough soldiers 能耐劳苦的军人   tough meat  老肉

   tough luck  倒霉               as tough as leather 坚韧如皮革

   be /get tough (with sb)   (对某人)强硬

Each team covered a distance of 18to 53miles.每个队伍要走18到53英里.

[点拨] cover 在该句中意为 “走过,行过(路程)”

e.g. Cover twenty miles a day. 一天跑20英里.

cover 作为及物动词使用, 常见以下几种意思:

1.              盖,包,覆盖

e.g.1.cover one’s eyes with a hand 用手遮住眼睛.

e.g.2.The floods covered large areas on both sides of the river.

洪水淹没了河两岸的大片地区。

 2.占(时间或空间)

      e.g.The city covers ten square miles.这个城市占地10平方英里。

 3.包括,涉及

      e.g.His researches covered a wide field. 他的研究涉及范围很广。

 4.进行新闻采访,报道

       e.g. I want our best reporters sent to cover the trial.

          我要派我们最优秀的记者去采访这次审判。

 5.够(付…钱)

      e.g. Will $10 cover the cost of a new skirt ?十美元够买一条新裙子吗?

cover 还可作为不及物动词,“代理,代替别人 ”

e.g. John’s ill today , so will you cover for him , Jean ?

    琴,约翰今天病了,请你代替他一下好吗?

cover 用作名词时,常指“覆盖物,封面 ,盖子等 ”

…wrapped the medicine in a quilt and tied it up. 用被子把药包好,然后,捆起来。

[点拨] 该句中的tie up =do up “束紧,包扎 缚牢 ,系住,栓住等 ”

      e.g. We tied the boat up alongside the quay.我们把船停泊在码头处。

tie sb up  “捆绑某人”“缠住某人使之无暇顾及他事”

 e.g.1. The thieves left the night-watchman tied up and gagged.

     窃贼把夜班守卫员捆住,把他的嘴也堵住了。

e.g.2.I’m tied up in a meeting until 3 pm.我开会直到下午3点钟方可脱身。

…but he knew that lives were at stake. 但是他知道有很多人危在旦夕。

[点拨] at stake 意为“得失攸关,处境危险”

   e.g. His life itself was at stake.他面临身败名裂的危险。

 … a memorial to all who risked their lives to save those of others.纪念那些冒着生命危险来挽救别人的人。

[点拨] risk 作为及物动词“冒 … 之险”

      e.g.1. risk one’s health /fortune /life /failure “冒着健康(财富、生命、失败)之险”

e.g.2.We must risk getting caught in a storm.

  我们必须冒为暴风雨所阻之险。

risk 还可用作名词,“冒险”常常构成下列短语:

1.run/take risks /a risk   “冒… 之险”

 e.g. You’re running a big risk in trusting him

     你信任他实在要冒很大的风险。

 2.run/take the risk of doing sth “ 冒…之险 ”

   e.g. We’ll take the risk of being late.我们将冒迟到之险。

 3. at the risk of /at risk to  “不顾 …之险”

   e.g. He was determined to get there even at the risk of his life.

      他决心到那里,虽冒生命危险在所不惜.

[点拨] those 在该句代替前面出现过的 “lives”

e.g.1.These machines are better than those we turned out last year.

   这些机器比我们去年生产的好。

e.g.2.The days in summer are longer than those in winter.

  夏天的白天比冬天的长。

Grammar   

语法:The Attribute

1.定语的表示法:

 定语可以用下面这些成分表示:

 1)形容词:

e.g.It’s a fine (windy,rainy, warm) day.这是一晴朗的(刮风、下雨、暖和)的日子。

 2)代词(和限定词)

e.g.Help yourself to some (more )fish.(再)吃一点鱼。

 3)数词

     e.g. There are twenty students in our class.我们班有二十名学生。

 4)名词或名词所有格

e.g.1.She is a college graduate.她是大学毕业生。

e.g.2.What’s your government’s attitude towards the problem?你们政府对此态度如何?

 5)分词短语

   e.g.These are the roads leading to the beach.这是通往海滨的路。

  6)不定式短语

   e.g.I’ve something important to discuss with you.

      我有一件重要的事情要和你商量。

  7)介词短语

e.g.Who’s that girl with a pigtail ?那个梳辫子的女孩是谁?

8)副词

  e.g.I have nothing special on tonight.今晚我没有什么特别活动。

9)词组或合成词

   e.g.1.Is anything the matter with you?你出什么事了?

   e.g.2.He is an easy-going man.他是一个容易相处的人。

10)从句

   e.g.She is a girl everyone likes.她是一个人人都喜欢的姑娘。

2.定语的位置

 当定语由一个单词表示时,多数都放在所修饰词的前面:

  e.g. the oppressed people  被压迫的民族

     everlasting friendship  永恒的友谊

   但在下面情况下,却可以放在所修饰词的后面:

   * 它由here,there , up ,out ,down, home , abroad这类副词表示:

e.g. On our trip abroad we visited relatives in Belgium.

         我们在国外旅行时看望了在比利时的亲戚。

* 它修饰的是由some, any, no, every等构成的合成词:

     e.g. There’s nothing wrong with the machine.机器没有毛病。

   定语放在所修饰词后面的主要有以下几种:

    * 定语从句:

      e.g. She was annoyed by something that I had said. 她被我说的一句话得罪了。

    * 介词短语:

e.g. She was a young woman of character.她是一个有个性的青年女子。

* 分词短语及不定式短语:

  e.g.  Here are the seats reserved for you.这儿是给你们留的座位。

  e.g.  Their attempt to cross the river failed. 他们渡江的企图失败了。

 3.定语的顺序

一个名词有两个或更多定语修饰时,大体上按以下顺序:

all, both+冠词或物主代词+其他单词定语+名词

 e.g. all the girl students 所有的女学生

    both his younger sisters 他的两个小妹妹

*有个别定语可放在冠词a前面

 e.g. such a nice person   many a student    rather a failure 

    so short a time      too small a room   however brilliant a mind

*有几个形容词修饰时,表示基本特征的往往离所修饰的词最近 。则可按以下口诀记忆:限定描绘大、长、高;形状、年龄和新老;颜色国籍出材料;作用类别往后靠。即:限定词(The , A)+描绘性形容词+大小(size)+形状(shape )+时间、年龄(age)+颜色(color)+国籍、来源(origin)+材料(material)+目的(purpose)+名词

  e.g. a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella

 

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